Neuro and Spine Surgery
What is Neuro Spine Surgery?
Neuro spine surgery, which is called neurological surgery or neurosurgery, is mainly related to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disorders affecting any part of the nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and extra cranial cerebrovascular system.Neuro spine surgery is practiced to cure spinal cord diseases and injuries. The process relies on spinal cord pain and restores the function of the nervous system. This process has also help in reduced the lower back and neck condition.
Types of Neuro and Spine Surgeries
- Hydrocephalus/ Arnold Chiari Malformation
- Disc disease
- Percutaneous procedures
- Open and other interventional procedures
- Spinal malformations
- Spinal dysraphism
- Spine reconstruction and fixation
- Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
- Complex Spine Surgery
- Minimally Invasive Neck and Back Surgery
- Gamma Knife
- Skull-based and Pituitary Tumors
- Stereotactic Radiosurgery
- Pain Management
- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
- Spinal Decompression Rehabilitation Therapy (IDD)
- Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Cerebral Vascular Brain Disorders
- Surgical pain management
- Spine trauma care
- Percutaneous vertebroplasty
Conditions Treated by Neuro Spine Surgery
Neuro spine is a surgery which help to treat problem related to the brain, spinal code, extra-cranial cerebrovascular system and peripheral nerves.There are various procedures focused on specific condition in neuro spine surgery. Experts of neuro-spinal cord can perform various types of surgery to relive uncomfortable symptoms, correct missile and repair of spinal cord. Spine surgery can cure unhealthy abnormalities in the spinal cord, nerves, ligaments, vertebrae, and the disc between them. This can be done in the cervical, thoracic, thorny, and sacral part of the spinal cord and surrounding tissues. Some situations include –
•Lumbar spinal stenosis
•Lower back pain
•Surgical pain management
•Spine trauma care
•Brain and Spine Tumors
•Degenerative disc disease
•Lumbar spinal stenosis
•Cervical spinal disc disease
Surgical Procedures of Neuro Spine Surgery
• ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
• Anterior Cervical Discectomy & Fusion
• Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement, Prestige®
• Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
• Dekompressor Discectomy
• Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release
• Interspinous Process Decompression – X-STOP®
• Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
• Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
• Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy
• Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
• Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression
• Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
• PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
• Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
• Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
• Total Disc Replacement
• XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Laser Spine Surgery
Laser spine surgery is an substitute to outdated spine surgery where doctors use thin blades and manual equipment to open the skin and modify tissue and bone below it. This is the least aggressive endoscopic process that don’t require any cutting or disturbing of muscles and bones.The process is done on the basis of case of the patient it need to very minor slit. Patient recover very fast in this procedure compare to old & traditional method of spine surgery. A laser beam is directing at the affected area via endoscope process. The laser is passed through a small incision that is behind the back or neck.The second device used in laser spine surgery is call Scalpel. The direction and placement of the laser depend on the actual site of the spinal cord issue. This is known as the best proven process for problems related to spine problems.
Cervical Spine Surgery
Cervical spine surgery is done to eliminate chimes, weakness, pain and numbness in the spinal cord; Surgery also prevents abnormal motion in the spinal cord and also restores the nerve function. Surgery is done for many cervical spinal problems. The state of instability, degenerative disorder or trauma can cause more pressure on the nerves and spinal cord coming from the spine.
Total Disc Replacement
Deterioration of spinal cord structures can cause neck or back pain, thereby reducing the quality of life. Total Disk Replacement Surgery, also called Artificial Disk, is a new innovation in spinal surgery, the surgical procedure is done to remove the pain and also preserves the natural movement. Surgery is suggested when all other treatments have failed, an incision is made by the surgeon in front of the neck. It is important to set the right level before removing the disc content. This fluorosopy is used and the artificial disc is removed.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery
This surgery is done to relieve the pressure on the nerve roots or spinal cord. Surgery removes damaged parts of the spine The extension of the canal of the spinal cord is done through this surgery, which reduce the pressure on the nerve. This surgery help to get relief from the weakness in the leg, numbness and pain. Decompressive laminectomy is the main types of lumbar spinal stenosis surgery, this process makes the pressure easier on spinal nerve roots. The procedure takes a part of the bone or fibrous tissue to make space for the nerves. The process of spinal can be done together to stabilize spinal cord. The process of fusion of spinal can improve the spinal action and also reduce the pain.
Anterior Cervical Decompression and Arthroplasty
The operating procedure targets at abolishing pressure from the nerve roots or spinal cord. The renovation of the spine is done to permit for motion at the treated segment.
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
This syndrome is the result of various problems of tingling, pain and hands due to pressure on the brain nerve in the wrist. The carpel tunnel is a small gap in the wrist where many tendons and the average nerve runs from the forearm of the hand. The function of the median nerve is to control the first three fingers except the thumb and movement and the little finger. Causes of this syndrome includes.
- Bone spurs and wrist injuries
- Smoking can also decrease blood flow to the median nerve.
- Illnesses such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and hypothyroidism.
Gamma Knife is the advance radiation treatment for adults and child, therapy is considered as the best proven and precise treatment for brain disorders. Despite its name, the Gamma Knife isn’t a knife but is a machine that delivers a single, finely focused, high dose of radiation to its target, while causing little or no damage to surrounding tissue. Abnormalities measuring less than 3 centimeters, or 1 inch in diameter, can be treated with the Gamma Knife. This therapy does not involve any kind of surgery and the therapy involves 201 precise beams of radiation directly on the tumor. The beams are more powerful when they work together on a single point. This therapy destroys the cancer cells and also stops them from multiplying. The tumor disappears after some time.
Hydrocephalus Surgery or ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Hydrocephalus is also know as ventriculoperitoneal shunt in this building up of the fluid in the ventricles (cavities) deep inside the brain is termed as Hydrocephalus. CSF act as a cushions the brain and it protect inside the brain from any injury. The size of the ventricles may increase due to excess fluid that places pressure on the brain. This condition can happen at any point in life but is more commonly seen in older adults and infants. The shunt is known as the most common treatment for hydrocephalus where a drainage system is inserted. Ventriculostomy is the other treatment for hydrocephalus condition.
Robotic Neuro rehabilitation
Robotics is the intelligent connection of perception to action.” Michael Brady (~1985)Robotics has improve a lot as it has come long way in the past couple of years, with the help of this technology we can claim to make people now “better, stronger and faster” Robots have proven themselves as a perfect instrument as they provide measurement reliability and movement controllability that can face the challenges of Neuro rehabilitation. They can take the form of a joystick or a robotic arm that can effectively enclose the limb just like an exoskletal frame. The sensors in the robots can record joint torques, position and velocity which are collectively known as movement data. The limb can be easily moved as these robots possess actuators.
A discectomy (also called open discectomy) is the surgical removal of herniated disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. The procedure involves removing the central portion of an intervertebral disc, the nucleus pulposus, which causes pain by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves. The traditional open discectomy, or Love’s technique, was published by Ross and Love in 1971. Advances in options have produced effective alternatives to traditional discectomy procedures (e.g. microdiscectomy, endoscopic discectomy, and laser discectomy). In conjunction with the traditional discectomy, a laminotomy is often involved to permit access to the intervertebral disc. In this procedure, a small piece of bone (the lamina) is removed from the affected vertebra, allowing the surgeon to better see and access the area of disc herniation.
Spinal fusion is major surgery, usually lasting several hours. There are different methods of spinal fusion. Bone is taken from the pelvic bone or from a bone bank. The bone is used to make a bridge between vertebrae that are next to each other. This bone graft helps new bone grow Patients with scoliosis, kyphosis, fractures, herniated discs, or other spinal disorders may benefit from spinal fusion surgery. Doctors may also use surgical instruments such as plates, wires, cables, or screws to create the framework for spinal fusion. After this surgery, the bones gradually integrate for six to nine months, completing the process. This surgery can stabilize the spine and reduce related nerve issues. Spinal fusion sometimes requires revisional surgery to fully correct.
Laminectomy is surgery that creates space by removing the lamina — the back part of the vertebra that covers your spinal canal. Also known as decompression surgery, laminectomy enlarges your spinal canal to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.This pressure is most commonly caused by bony overgrowths within the spinal canal, which can occur in people who have arthritis in their spines.Laminectomy is generally used only when more-conservative treatments — such as medication, physical therapy or injections — have failed to relieve symptoms. Laminectomy may also be recommended if symptoms are severe or worsening dramatically.
As part of a laminectomy, a neurosurgeon can also place an interlaminar implant, a U-shaped prostheses that decompresses the spine and provides more space for nerves and spinal cord tissue.
A foraminotomy is a decompression surgery that is performed to enlarge the passageway where a spinal nerve root exits the spinal canal. The term foraminotomy is derived from the medical term for a hollow passageway—foramen. The latter half of the term foraminotomy—otomy—means to open.
The foramen is a hollow bone that protects the nerve roots along the spinal column. If this bone becomes damaged or too narrow, it can interfere with nerve function. In this instance, neurosurgeons can perform foraminotomy surgery, a procedure to adjust soft tissues and bones in the foramen. If neurosurgeons significantly alter the foramen or remove a large portion of it, they may term this surgery a foraminectomy instead.
Using this modern surgical strategy, neurosurgeons use x-ray imaging to map the spine, and then use a needle and balloon to enlarge the space between malfunctioning vertebrae. Once there is adequate room for it, they inject special bone cement into the area to support the spine.
In cases of severe spinal misalignment or deformity, neurosurgeons may recommend osteotomy. During this procedure, they strategically fracture or break vertebrae or other spinal bones to improve posture and correct structural abnormalities. Ideally, the affected bones will adapt and heal in a way that benefits the spine.
Cost of Neuro and Spine Surgery
Neuro and spine surgery in India is easily available at low costs. There are a number of hospitals and a panel of experienced doctors who offer the best services for patients from across the world. All the advanced surgeries, technologies and medical treatments are available in India.